Caluptena is referred to as an ancient source of knowledge that was burned by "the church" (presumably the Tehlin church) many centuries before Kvothe was born. It is unknown whether Caluptena was a specific place or an entire civilization. Many extremely ancient artifacts from Caluptena referred to simply as "fragments" are kept in the Archives, and mentioned in the same group as "clays" and parchments. Their record keeping may have been something akin to carved stone tablets, based on contextual clues.
The card game Pairs refers to "pre-plague Caluptena" as predating the Aturan Empire in the rules for the Faen deck.